The following publication concerning bird species have been published by researchers associated with the Kalahari Research Centre.


Bourne, A. R., McKechnie, A. E., Cunningham, S. J., Ridley, A. R., Woodborne, S. M., & Karasov, W. H. (2019). Non‐invasive measurement of metabolic rates in wild, free‐living birds using doubly labelled water. Functional ecology33(1), 162-174.

Engesser, S., & Townsend, S. W. (2019). Combinatoriality in the vocal systems of nonhuman animals. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science, e1493.

Jepsen, E. M., Ganswindt, A., Ngcamphalala, C. A., Bourne, A. R., Ridley, A. R., & McKechnie, A. E. (2019). Non-invasive monitoring of physiological stress in an afrotropical arid-zone passerine bird, the southern pied babbler. General and comparative endocrinology276, 60-68.

Van de Ven, T. M. F. N., McKechnie, A. E., & Cunningham, S. J. (2019). The costs of keeping cool: behavioural trade-offs between foraging and thermoregulation are associated with significant mass losses in an arid-zone bird. Oecologia191(1), 205-215.


Engesser, S., Ridley, A. R., Manser, M. B., Manser, A., & Townsend, S. W. (2018). Internal acoustic structuring in pied babbler recruitment cries specifies the form of recruitment. Behavioral Ecology, 29(5), 1021-1030.

Nelson‐Flower, M. J., Flower, T. P., & Ridley, A. R. (2018). Sex differences in the drivers of reproductive skew in a cooperative breeder. Molecular ecology, 27(10), 2435-2446.

Nelson‐Flower, M. J., Wiley, E. M., Flower, T. P., & Ridley, A. R. (2018). Individual dispersal delays in a cooperative breeder: Ecological constraints, the benefits of philopatry and the social queue for dominance. Journal of Animal Ecology.

Wiley, E. M., & Ridley, A. R. (2018). The benefits of pair bond tenure in the cooperatively breeding pied babbler (Turdoides bicolor). Ecology and Evolution.


Engesser, S., Ridley, A. R., & Townsend, S. W. (2017). Element repetition rates encode functionally distinct information in pied babbler ‘clucks’ and ‘purrs’. Animal cognition20(5), 953-960.

Olinger, R. (2017). How does temperature affect Fork-tailed Drongo, Dicrurus adsimilis, foraging effort, nestling provisioning and growth rates? (Doctoral dissertation, University of Cape Town).


Ridley, A.R. (2016) Southern pied babblers: the dynamics of conflict and cooperation in a group-living society. In Cooperative Breeding in Vertebrates (eds. W.D. Koenig and J.L. Dickinson). Cambridge University Press pp.115-132.


Nelson-Flower, M.J. and Ridley, A.R. (2015) Male-male competition is not costly to dominant males in a cooperatively breeding bird. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology/doi 10.1007/s00265-015-2011-0.

Ridley, A.R., Humphries, D.J. and Wiley, E.M. (2015) Is information from both quality signalling and social recognition really redundant? A commentary on Sheehan and Bergman. (Invited Commentary) Behavioral Ecology/doi 10.1093/beheco/arv156.

Flower, T.P., Ashton, B, Zöttl, E., Olinger, R. and Hockey, P.A.R. (2015) Dual parasitism of Fork-tailed Drongo by African and Jacobin Cuckoos. Ostrich/Journal of African Ornithology 86: 189-191/doi 10.2989/00306525.1029032.

Humphries, D.J., Finch, F.M., Bell, M.B.V. and Ridley, A.R. (2015) Calling where it counts: subordinate pied babblers target the audience of their vocal advertisements. PLoS One 10(7).


Flower, T.P., Gribble, M. and Ridley, A.R. (2014) Deception by flexible alarm mimicry in an African bird. Science 344: 513-516/doi 10.1126/science.1249723.

Ridley, A.R., Wiley, E.M. and Thompson, A.M. (2014) The ecological benefits of interceptive eavesdropping. Functional Ecology 28: 197-205.

Baigrie, B.D, Thompson, A. M. and Flower, T. P. (2014) Interspecific signalling between mutualists: Food-thieving drongos use a cooperative sentinel call to manipulate foraging partners. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: 281 (1791) 20141232/doi 10.1098/rspb.1232.


Thompson, A.M. and Ridley, A.R. (2013) Do fledglings choose wisely? An experimental investigation into social foraging behaviour. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 67: 69-78.

Ridley, A.R., Nelson-Flower, M.J. and Thompson, A.M. (2013) Is sentinel behaviour safe? An experimental investigation. Animal Behaviour 85: 137-142.

Thompson, A.M. Ridley, A.R., Hockey, P.A.R., Finch, F.M., Britton, A. and Raihani, N.J. (2013) The influence of siblings on begging behaviour. Animal Behaviour 86: 811-819.

Nelson-Flower, M.J., Hockey, P.A.R., O’Ryan, C., English, S., Thompson, A.M., Radley, K., Rose, R. and Ridley, A.R. (2013) Costly reproductive competition between females in a monogamous cooperatively breeding bird. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 280/doi org/10.1098/rspb.2013.0728.

Thompson, A.M., Raihani, N.J., Hockey, P.A.R., Britton, A. Finch, F.M. and Ridley, A.R. (2013) The influence of fledgling location on adult provisioning: a test of the blackmail hypothesis. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 280/10.1098/rspb.2013.0558.

Flower, T.P., Child, M.F. and Ridley, A.R. (2013) The ecological economics of kleptoparasitism: payoffs from self-foraging versus kleptoparasitism. Journal of Animal Ecology 82: 245-255.


Flower, T.P. and Gribble, M. (2012) Kleptoparasitism by attacks versus false alarms in the fork-tailed drongo. Animal Behaviour 83: 403-410/doi 10.1016/j.anbehav.11.009.

Golabek, K.A., Ridley, A.R. and Radford, A.N. (2012) Food availability affects strength of seasonal territorial behaviour in a cooperatively breeding bird. Animal Behaviour 83 613-619.

Nelson-Flower, M.J., Hockey, P.A.R., O’Ryan, C. and Ridley, A.R. (2012) Inbreeding avoidance mechanisms: dispersal dynamics in cooperatively breeding pied babblers. Journal of Animal Ecology 81: 875-882.

du Plessis, K.L., Martin, R.O., Hockey, P.A.R., Cunningham, S.J.C. and Ridley, A.R. (2012) The costs of keeping cool in a warming world: implications of high temperatures for foraging, thermoregulation and body condition of an arid-zone bird. Global Change Biology 18: 3063-3070.

Child, M.F., Flower, T.P. and Ridley, A.R. (2012) Investigating a link between bill morphology, foraging ecology and kleptoparasitic behaviour in the fork-tailed drongo Dicrurus adsimilis. Animal Behaviour 84: 1013-1022.

Ridley, A.R. and van den Heuvel, I.M. (2012) Is there a difference in reproductive performance between cooperative and non-cooperative species? A southern African comparison. Behaviour 149: 821-848.


Hockey, P.A.R., Sirami, C., Ridley, A.R., Midgley, G.F. and Babiker, H.A. (2011) Interrogating recent range changes in South African birds: confounding signals from land-use and climate change represent a challenge for attribution. Diversity and Distributions 17: 254-261.

Ridley, A.R. and Thompson, A.M. (2011) Heterospecific egg destruction by wattled starlings and the impact on pied babbler reproductive success. Ostrich 82: 201-205.

Nelson-Flower, M.J., Hockey, P., O’Ryan, C. Raihani, N., du Plessis, M. and Ridley,A.R. (2011) Monogamous dominant pairs monopolize reproduction in the cooperatively breeding pied babbler. Behavioral Ecology 22: 559-565.

Hollén, L.I., Bell, M.B.V., Russell, A., Niven, F., Ridley, A.R., Radford, A.N. (2011) Calling by concluding sentinels: coordinating cooperation or revealing risk? PLoS One 6(10): e25010/doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0025010.

Hollén, L.I., Bell, M.B.V., Wade, H.M., Rose, R., Russell, A., Niven, F., Ridley, A.R. and Radford, A.N. (2011) Ecological conditions influence sentinel decisions. Animal Behaviour 82: 1435-1441.

Flower, T. P. (2011) Deceptive vocal mimicry by the fork-tailed drongo. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 278: 1548-1555/doi 10.1098/rspb.1932.


N.J. Raihani and T.H Clutton-Brock (2010) Higher reproductive skew among birds than mammals in cooperatively breeding species. Biology Letters 6: 630-632.

Ridley, A.R., Raihani, N.J. and Bell, M.B.V. (2010) Experimental evidence that sentinel behaviour is affected by risk. Biology Letters 12/doi 10.1098/rsbl.0023.

Raihani, N.J., Nelson-Flower, M.J., Browning, L.E., Moyes, K. and Ridley, A.R. (2010) Synchronous provisioning increases brood survival in cooperatively breeding pied babblers. Journal of Animal Ecology 79: 44-52.

Bell, M.B.V., Radford, A.N., Smith, R.A., Thompson, A.M. and Ridley, A.R. (2010) Bargaining babblers: vocal negotiation of cooperative behaviour in a social bird. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B – Biological Sciences 277: 3223-3228.

Raihani, N.J., Nelson-Flower, M.J., Browning, L.E. and Ridley, A.R. (2010) Routes to breeding in cooperatively breeding pied babblers. Journal of Avian Biology 41: 681-686.


Bell, M.B.V., Radford, A.N., Rose, R., Wade, H., and Ridley, A.R. (2009) The value of constant surveillance in a risky environment. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 276: 2997-300.

Ridley, A.R. and Child, M.F. (2009) Specific targeting of host individuals by a kleptoparasitic bird. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 63: 1119-1126.


Raihani, N.J and Ridley, A.R. (2008) Parental aggression against dependent young results in task partitioning in a cooperative bird. Biology Letters 4: 24-26.

Raihani, N.J. and Ridley, A.R. (2008) Experimental evidence for teaching in wild pied babblers. Animal Behaviour 75: 3-11.

Ridley, A.R., Raihani, N.J and Nelson-Flower, M.J. (2008) The cost of being alone: the fate of floaters in a population of cooperatively breeding pied babblers. Journal of Avian Biology 39: 389-392.

Radford, A.N. and Ridley, A.R. (2008) Close-calling regulates spacing between foraging competitors in the group-living pied babbler. Animal Behaviour 75: 519-527.

Raihani, N.J., Ridley, A.R., Browning, L.E. and Nelson-Flower, M.J. (2008) Juvenile female aggression in cooperatively breeding pied babblers: causes and contexts. Ethology 114: 452-458.

Ridley, A.R. and Raihani, N.J. (2008) Task partitioning increases reproductive output in a cooperative bird. Behavioral Ecology 19: 1136-114.


Ridley, A.R. and Raihani, N.J. (2007) Facultative response to a kleptoparasite by the cooperatively breeding pied babbler. Behavioral Ecology 18: 324-330.

Raihani, N.J. and Ridley, A.R. (2007) Adult vocalisations during provisioning: offspring responses and post-fledging benefits in wild pied babblers. Animal Behaviour 74: 1303-1309.

Ridley, A.R and Raihani, N.J. (2007) Variable post-fledging care in a cooperative bird: causes and consequences. Behavioral Ecology 18: 994-1000.

Raihani, N.J. and Ridley, A.R. (2007) Variable fledging age according to group size: tradeoffs in a cooperative bird. Biology Letters 3: 624-627.

Ridley, A.R., Child, M.F and Bell, M.B.V. (2007) Interspecific audience effects on the alarm-calling behaviour of a kleptoparasitic bird. Biology Letters 3: 589-591.

Radford, A.N. and Ridley, A.R. (2007) Individuals in foraging groups may use vocal cues when assessing their need for anti-predator vigilance. Biology Letters 3: 249-252.


Radford, A.N. and Ridley, A.R. (2006) Recruitment calling: a novel form of extended parental care in an altricial species. Current Biology 16: 1700-1704.

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